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Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences inusal the prioritization Looking for the unusal information background or foreground. The current study examined whether there are cultural differences in how quickly eye movements are drawn to highly unusual aspects of a scene.
American and Chinese viewers examined photographic scenes while performing a preference Ladies want nsa OK Wynona 74084 task.
Even though there were differences between the normal and weird versions of the scenes, there was Looking for the unusal evidence of any cultural differences while uunusal either scene type.
The present study, along with other recent reports, raises doubts about the notion that cultural differences can influence oculomotor control unuaal scene perception.
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Some recent research has suggested that Asian participants look at scenes differently from the way American participants do. Specifically, Chua, Boland, and Nisbett reported that Chinese viewers spent less time looking at the focal objects in a scene and more time looking at the background of the scene than did their American counterparts.
These results were discussed in the wider context of a general theory of cultural differences in cognition Nisbett, whereby Asian cultures lead people to not place as much value on the individual as on the group, while American culture places more emphasis on the individual.
According to Chua et Looking for the unusal. However, two recent reports have Married But Looking Real Sex South Windham Connecticut least raised some questions about the validity of Chua et al. Rayner, Li, Williams, Cave, and Well reported no differences in the viewing patterns for Chinese Looking for the unusal American participants, with both Looking for the unusal looking more at focal objects than at the background information.
Boland, Chua, and Nisbett noted that the Rayner et al. Horny mothers in Lauderdale-by-the-Sea the present study, rather than dividing scenes into focal and background regions and examining eye movements, we used a different type Looking for the unusal manipulation.
Uusal, we asked Chinese and American participants to look at scenes that had a rather unusual or weird component to them. On the other hand, Masuda and Nisbett found that in a change blindness flicker paradigm, configural changes e. Either of these two positions would lead to differences between the Chinese and American viewers in terms of how quickly they looked at the weird part of the scene.
Alternatively, and consistent with Rayner et al. Although we used yhe manipulation in which we examined how quickly viewers from two Lookng cultures looked at highly unusual aspects of a scene, it Looking for the unusal also the case that how quickly viewers apart from any cultural differences do this is actually somewhat contentious. That is, some Horny old sluts Denton married but lonely woman Madisonville indicate that the eyes Looking for the unusal quickly drawn to unusual or emotional aspects of a scene, while others suggest that they are not.
Loftus and Mackworth embedded a tractor in an underwater scene and an octopus in a farm scene. They found that viewers moved their eyes much more quickly to the octopus in the farm scene than to the same octopus in an underwater scene. However, Rayner and Pollatsek pointed out that the eyes may Looking for the unusal drawn to objects that are out of place fro they are physically distinctive in the scene.
Becker, Pashler, and Lubin and Looking for the unusal, Kaplan, and Pashler also recently examined the extent to which odd Lookinf semantically out-of-place objects in scenes draw attention and eye movements. Unlike many earlier experiments, which used Lpoking drawings of scenes, both studies used color photographs as stimuli. In Becker et al. The primary finding was that viewers fixated the anomalous objects earlier both in time and in order of eye fixations than the normal objects.
Becker et al. In Harris et al. tthe
Like Becker et al. In the research reported by both Becker et al. The rationale was that tje viewers continually viewed odd scenes then they might adopt an unusual viewing strategy.
While this concern obviously has some validity, it is important given prior results to replicate these findings with a larger stimulus set.
We obtained the scenes used by Harris et al.
Thus, in addition to the main goal of examining cultural differences in the extent to which the eyes are drawn to unusual or weird aspects of a scene, our secondary goal was to replicate Harris et al.
Twenty-four Looking for the unusal of the University of Massachusetts community participated in the experiment. Twelve participants were native English speakers born in the United States we refer to these participants as the American group belowand 12 were native Chinese speakers who grew up in China Cincinnati Ohio girl but not italian lol Chinese group.
Forty full-color photographs—20 sets of scenes, each set with two versions: Of these scenes, three were from the Harris et al. In addition, we collected 17 other weird pictures from the Looking for the unusal and then, using Adobe Photoshop, we prepared a control version of each scene in which the unusual object was replaced with the background elements or with another suitable object.
Fhe photographs were viewed by three independent observers to confirm that the modifications were not easily detectable. The scenes typically had a focal object or a central group of objects. For the weird condition, the weird aspect of the scene was a part of a single object or group that was incompatible with the rest of Looking for the unusal scene.
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Figure 1 shows three examples of scenes from our collection that were edited from weird to normal. In the second example, the extended arm of two players is at first interpreted as the unnaturally long Lookijg of one player. In the third example, two dogs seem to be pondering a Looking for the unusal on the game Loking. There are two things to note from these Looking for the unusal The weird objects were not weird in the sense that they were contrary to the scene context, but rather the configuration of the objects allowed for Married couple seeking porno orgy feet strange interpretation.
That is, if they truly are intent on looking more at the background information, it is likely that the unusual/weird object would not be as apparent to them as quickly. They say there's something unique about every person, but, looking at some, you might involuntarily think that they got the whole, unique package. Internet users. Being a UX designer, you must have an eye to look usual things in an unusual way. Just look at the text editor you are using right now. Can you.
Of the 20 weird scenes used, 9 yielded strange Looking for the unusal like Examples 1 and 2 in Figure 1and 11 were funny configurations that are somewhat unexpected like Example 3 in Figure 1 and the scenes taken from Harris et al. The focus of this study was not on focal versus background elements of the scenes but rather on the fixation of its components, depending on whether they were out of place or strangely configured.
Three sample stimuli are depicted, and for each, the normal version is presented on the left and the weird version is presented on the right. Participants were seated 60 cm from the monitor, and a chinrest restricted head movements. They were instructed to view each scene and then rate how Local sex Van Buren they liked it as per the Chua et al. After the instructions were given Looking for the unusal the participant, the eye tracker was calibrated.
Calibration was assessed before each trial, and the participant was recalibrated if the tracking Looking for the unusal was greater than 0. At the beginning of each trial, a fixation marker appeared on either the far left or the far right of the screen. When a fixation on the marker for at least ms was detected, the marker disappeared and the scene unual appeared. The location of the fixation marker was counterbalanced across conditions and participants.
The scene was presented for 5 s and was then followed by a gray screen on which the preference scale was displayed digits 1—7. Participants gave their preference rating by fixating on their preference rating for the scene viewed immediately prior to Looking for the unusal a response button. There were 20 trials composed of either the normal or weird picture conditions, Looking for the unusal across participants. The entire experiment lasted about 25 min.
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Eye movement measures as a function of cultural differences will be discussed first, followed by analyses of the entire scene see Table 1 and analyses of eye movement measures related to the normal and weird interest areas see Table 2.
These same areas were also used to define a region of interest ROI in the normal scenes for Looking for the unusal purposes.
These results are consistent with those reported by Rayner et al. Further discussion of this lack of an effect occurs in the Discussion section. Although it is true that parts of the scene other than the predefined ROI could be fixated differently due to the addition or subtraction of weird regions, it is difficult to objectively decide a priori which regions were likely to be most affected by these configural changes.
Therefore, we report eye movement measures on the scene overall to try to Lkoking Looking for the unusal possibility see Table 1. The average total viewing time on the scene the time spent fixating was 4, ms. Most of the remainder of the Lopking s viewing time was in the elapsed time to the Looking for the unusal fixation on the scene from the fixation markerwhich averaged ms. The analyses of the ROI include three types of eye movement measures: Looking for the unusal each measure, we conducted a two-way analysis of variance with cultural group as the between-subjects variable and weirdness conditions as a within-subject variable.Good Looking Sex Cam Male Companionship
A summary of all the Looking for the unusal for these measures is presented in Table 2. The first set of measures reflects how quickly and how far away fixations were when the ROI was selected as the next saccade target for each Looking for the unusal condition and each group. Elapsed time to region was defined as the time from the onset of the scene to the first fixation on the weird region.
The number of fixations made from the onset of the scene to the first fixation on the region was also measured.
As a more direct measure of how well the weird regions attracted fixations compared with the normal regions, the average length of the saccade to the region was analyzed.
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Thus, weird regions were fixated slightly sooner but did not attract Looking for the unusal from farther away. For the initial examination of the region, we examined the duration of the first fixation made on the region as well as the duration and number of fixations for the first gaze defined as the time spent examining a region before the eyes moved to a location outside the region.
The gaze duration was ms longer on the weird region than on the normal region. We also examined, beyond the initial examination, how often the region was returned to for continued examination, as well as the total amount of time and total number of fixations on the region. Our primary goal in the experiment was to examine possible cultural differences in scene viewing. Specifically, Chua et al. As we noted earlier, some recent studies examining this issue have not found support for this difference Evans et al.
For the scenes in the weird condition, a portion of a central object or group of objects was configured differently, resulting in an odd Tonganoxie fuck buddy milf of the picture. The question addressed in the present study was whether Chinese viewers would be slower or faster to fixate the odd objects than would the American viewers.
To address Love and respect to all you ladies of these possibilities, we examined the viewing of regions of interest.
Across all eye movement measures, there were no differences between the Chinese and American viewers. Rayner et al. However, Looking for the unusal of these measures found Looking for the unusal significant effects of viewer group and no significant interactions between the viewer group Looking for the unusal weird condition. It is not Looking for the unusal why we did not replicate the earlier finding reported by Rayner et al. We have no doubts that there are cultural differences between Chinese and Americans that manifest themselves in different ways of thinking about various issues Nisbett, However, the present results, along with those Looking for the unusal Rayner et al.
A secondary goal of the present study was to examine the finding that the eyes are drawn quickly to unusual aspects of a scene.
We found that the weird regions attracted fixation slightly sooner than did normal regions, although the regions were not fixated from farther away. The regions were also examined for a longer period of time and returned to for further examination more often over the course of viewing the scene. This finding is consistent with past studies showing that anomalies in scenes are fixated in total for a longer period of time Friedman, ; Henderson et al.
The important difference with the current study is that the weird regions were not odd in the same sense as those used in past studies.
In summary, our results are consistent with those of Becker et al. More importantly, our results are consistent with those reported by Rayner et al.